Women's Position in Lithuanian Labour Market in the 20th century
Peu après la proclamation de la I République en Lituanie en 1918, les femmes purent enfin accéder aux métiers d’institutrices, professeurs, secrétaires, traductrices etc. Cependant, cette expérience fut éphémère. Dès 1923, l’Etat lithuanien adopta les premières mesures de discrimination à l’encontre des femmes, en particulier dans le domaine de l’emploi. Le gouvernement congédia de nombreuses travailleuses, sans prendre en considération leur formation ou leur situation sociale, causant ainsi de grands préjudices à des milliers de lithuaniennes. Le décret du 3 novembre 1926 qui prévoyait le licenciement de l’un des conjoints si les deux membres du couple disposaient déjà d’un emploi souleva maintes critiques, ce qui conduisit le gouvernement à l’abroger. A partir de 1933, le licenciement des femmes et leur « replacement » dans le foyer devint, comme dans le reste de l’Europe, un phénomène de grande ampleur et demeura d’actualité en Lituanie jusqu'à la fin Seconde Guerre mondiale. Par la suite (1945–1990), la Lituanie fut occupée par l’Union Soviétique. La planification de l’économie fit disparaître, du moins en apparence, le problème de chômage. Avec la fin de l’URSS et l’instauration de la II République en 1990, le chômage des femmes réapparut, en particulier à partir de1996, période au cours de laquelle le pays subit l’une des crises les plus importantes de son histoire. Actuellement, les lituaniennes sont encore discrimineés, notamment en ce qui concerne les salaires. Elles gagnent 19 % de moins que les hommes. Des membres du patronat et certains économistes dénoncent cette situation et soulignent également que certains emplois sont devenus « féminins » car, selon eux, les femmes sont fidèles au foyer et à la famille. C’est la raison pour laquelle, pensent-ils, les lituaniennes recherchent des emplois nécessitant peu de formation et dont le niveau de qualification est faible, car elles peuvent ainsi continuer à remplir leurs obligations familiales.
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1During the First Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940) women’s possibilities to find a job were rather limited. At that time Lithuania was an agrarian country with an underdeveloped industry, thus, job possibilities were low for men as well. Besides, predominant traditional social roles in the society ascribed the duty of bread-winning to a man, hence, women were not expected to earn for the family. Therefore, when the global economic crisis began, the Lithuanian government solved the issue of unemployment by making women redundant.
2After the reestablishment of independence on March 11, 1990 gender equity became one of the most topical issues in the fields of labour market and politics. From 1945 till 1990, while the state was occupied by the USSR, there was no unemployment problem. Every adult citizen had to work. There was no market, because of the planned economy. Just after 1990, the issue of unemployment became topical, particularly from a women’s perspective since women were dismissed in numbers. This solution of the problem was not new from a historical viewpoint, as it had been made during the first Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940).
3The issue of women redundancy during the first Republic of Lithuania has not been researched. Most of the research on the topic focuses on women’s position in the labour market of the second Republic of Lithuania (1990-present). Hence, the aim of the paper is to discuss and compare the issues in the labour market during the first and the second Republics of Lithuania, and distinguish the tendencies of their solution from the perspectives of the government and the women’s organizations. The two historical periods are selected in order to show that most of the employment issues in the 2nd Republic of Lithuania stem from the 1st Republic, when they were not solved.
4In this paper a limitation to the scope of the unemployment issues is made. Unemployment is considered only in towns, as linked to an industrialenvironment. As the country was little industrialized, about 80 % of the society lived in the countryside where traditional relations were predominant. Countryside women usually had traditional, socially static roles. All of them — but teachers — did not belong to any social organization, because of accepted traditional roles and religiousness.
- 1 Baranauskaite, Toma, Moteru padetis Lietuvos darbo rinkoje [Women’s position in Lithuanian labour (...)
- 2 Prunskiene, Kazimiera, Moters vaidmuo ir galimybes visuomeneje [Woman‘s role and opportunities in (...)
- 3 Martinkus, Bronislovas, Berzinskiene, Daiva, Lietuvos gyventojų užimtumo ekonominiai aspektai [Eco (...)
5The material for the paper was taken from several sources. The discussion of the activity of the women’s organizations relies on the analysis of the stenographs of the Constituent Seimas (Parliament) (1920-1922) and three subsequent Seimas (1922-1927), which reflect the activity of women-parliamentarians. The analysis of the effects of the issues on the labour market during the second Republic of Lithuania is carried out based on prior research by T. Baranauskaite1, K. Prunskiene2, B. Berzinskiene and B. Martinkus3. Unpublished archival material from the funds of the Central Archive of the State of Lithuania (CASL), the Manuscript Department of Vilnius University Library (MDVUL) and the Manuscript Department of Lithuanian Academy of Sciences (MDLAS) is also used in this paper to reveal the phenomenon of making women redundant in the 1920s and 1930s. The press of the 1920s and the 1930s extends the list of sources. It reflects the governments’ position towards the women’s movement and describes the activity of the women’s organizations, when solving the issue of making women redundant.
6After the reestablishment of the state in 1918, just after the World War I, the quantitative and qualitative character of the workforce was very important to the development of the economy. Till 1923, the criterion for hiring a person was competence. There was an especially high need for educated employees, in particular, specialists and state officials. After the war, Russian, Polish, German professionals returned to their countries and most of the Lithuanian were trying to accumulate wealth through private business and were not interested in jobs in the public sector. The problem of unemployment became topical to specialists only after 1923, when the state began to strengthen the national currency with various instruments, e.g. by prohibiting operations with foreign currencies and introducing customs duty. The policy discontinued illegal speculations with currencies, which was one of the most widespread ways of earning the living in Lithuania at that time. Besides, students who were sent to foreign universities by the state after 1918 returned home and needed a job.
7Already in the Constituent Seimas (1920-1922) women-parliamentarians proposed to include a section in the Constitution which would have made women’s work equal to the one of men and ensure the same payment for the same work with the same qualification. The proposal was rejected because it was too new an idea in still a patriarchal society, in which the status of the father as the bread-winner was important. In 1922, women also made a proposal to equal mother’s housework to office work and pay a salary for it. It was a ground-breaking idea because so far it has not been realized in any developed, post-industrial state. The first Seimas worked just for four months and did not consider the issues of employment. President A. Stulginskis, based on the Constitution, dissolved Seimas.
8In the 2nd Seimas (1923-1926) women-parliamentarians raised acute social issues such as women‘s insurance against accidents at work, equal payment for the same work. A solution of these issues could have improved the women’s situation in the labour market, strengthening their influence in the family because their salaries would have increased. However, the related laws were not passed because just 3 women out of 71 parliamentarians supported them.
- 4 Stenographs of the 2nd Seimas, Sitting, 104 and 206, June 3, 1924 and November 10, 1925.
- 5 Ibid.
9M. Galdikiene raised the issues of social security in Seimas. During the consideration of the Law of Pensions and Allowances of State Officials, she proposed not to increase salaries to state officials but allocate the money to women and extend the period of maternity leave4. She categorically objected to the proposal made by the Treasury to reduce the period of maternity leave from 8 to 6 weeks. She argued that the money allocated to raising salaries of state officials could be used for prolonging the period of maternity leave. The members of Seimas had different attitudes to the Treasury’s proposal. The proponents claimed that shortening maternity leave would help women to sustain the same level of qualification and prevent employers from laying off women who had been on maternity leave as such cases existed. M. Galdikiene replied that the state life should also be based on the principles of humanity5. The members of Seimas ignored her proposal.
10So at that time an employee’s gender did not make impact on (not) getting a job, just on a salary. In most cases a woman got half the man’s pay for the same work. The principles of humanity did not play a role.
- 6 Ibid., Sitting 77, March 18, 1924.
11During the consideration of the Bill of State Tax of Public Service and Business L. Pureniene and M. Galdikiene spoke against increasing the tax-free living minimum and exemption of the poorest from taxes. This demand had different arguments. M. Galdikiene drew attention to poor circumstances of families with children and suggested raising the taxes for single persons. According to L. Pureniene, the Bill violated equal rights of both sexes. She pointed out that in the case when a man supported the family increasing a tax-free living minimum was intended, while when a man was unemployed and a woman supported the family such an increase was not foreseen6.
- 7 Stenographs of the 3rd Seimas, Sitting 44, November 19, 1926.
- 8 Ibid.
12Yet, one of the hottest discussions in the society and Seimas was raised by the decree of November 3, 1926 that was passed by the Cabinet of the third Seimas (1926-1927). It stated that in the event when both spouses were in public service, one should be dismissed, irrespective of whether they worked in the same organization or not. Already on November 14, L. Pureniene handed an inquiry to the Prime Minister M. Slezevicius, and on November 15 the representatives of Christian democrats’ fraction, i.e. M. Galdikiene, E. Gvildiene and S. Ladygiene submitted an interpellation to him7. Both the documents drew attention to the same problem : the decree of the Cabinet will, first of all, affect married women because the started campaign was directed at the policy of « bringing a woman to the family ». L. Pureniene claimed that such a decree contradicted the Constitution (1922) and put women to « a somewhat special position without rights »8.
13On November 19, the deputy of the Prime Minister V. Cepinskis announced that the decree would not be executed. Hence, the efforts of women-parliamentarians suspended the decree that would have accounted for legalizing women’s lay-offs.
14After the state takeover on December 16, 1926 President A. Smetona limited democratic rights. In 1927, he released the 3rd Seimas and initiated politics that was meant « to bring woman back to the family » and stop their political activity at any level. Moreover, further attempts were made to restrict women’s participation in the labour market. In 1929, when the global economic crisis began, the government solved social issues such as unemployment disregarding the articles of the Constitution of 1928 which guaranteed gender equity.
- 9 LWC memorandum, CASL, f. 923, f. 787, p. 39.
15The first women organization that aimed to help women was the Lithuanian Catholic Women Association (LCWA), founded in 1908. In 1922 a union of catholic organizations called Lithuanian Catholic Women Highest Secretariat (HSLCW) was established. Its goal was not only to unite organizations, but also to coordinate the activity of catholic women. In 1929 it organized lectures on household management and fight against social evils. The Lithuanian Women Council (LWC), which was established in 1929, united 20 women organizations that represented democrats and social democrats. From its beginning the Council had to solve the problem of maintaining women in labour market. In 1931 the LWC presented the government with a memorandum where it was required to ensure gender equity in the event of redundancy9. The government did not reply to the women’s memorandum, ignoring reasoned demands of the women’s organizations.
- 10 Moterų nedarbas Lietuvoje [Women‘s unemployment in Lithuania]. MDLAS, f. 181–15, p. 6.
16In 1932 women unemployment was still the most acute issue. According to the register of Kaunas labour exchange of that time, the number of unemployed women was 3000 compared to 611 men. Most of the women were field and factory workers and servants. Women with a profession were not registered, yet, the register does not reflect the reality. For example, the archival resources record a case when a vacancy for a secretary was announced and 60 female candidates gathered for the interview10.
- 11 Vyriausybes nutarimas [Government‘s decree], MDLAS, f. 181–15, p. 4.
17In 1933 women’s unemployment became even higher. 2 May 1933, in the attempt to balance the state budget the ministers decided from July 1 to fire those state officials 1) which spouse working either in a public or a private organization gets a salary higher than the one set by the government ; 2) if their qualification does not meet the requirements for the position11. The decree did not state explicitly which of the spouses had to be dismissed, leaving the decision-making to public officials. The decision raised vehement resistance of women because of the real threat to lose the job. The LWC was quick to react to this decision, demanding to cancel it. The government had to take into consideration the feelings of a great part of the society because women worked in solidarity.
- 12 Moteru nedarbas Lietuvoje [Women‘s unemployment in Lithuania], MDLAS, f. 181–15, p. 6.
18At the end of the year 1935 the situation in Lithuanian labour market became even more complicated. The government issued New Decrees of Industrial Workers’ Employment that forbade women to work night shifts from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m.12. In this way, the government attempted to solve the problem of unemployment, yet, they pushed women workers into difficult economic and social circumstances. The chair of the LWC V. Lozoraitiene drew the society’s attention to a more complicated position of women as follows :
- 13 Ibid., p. 6.
Don’t make a woman go back to the family. She knows herself what treasure a child is… a woman often works in order to provide the necessary conditions for her child to grow and become stronger.13
- 14 Ibid., p. 6.
19She suggested several solutions to the problem of women’s unemployment. The first one was establishing vocational schools for girls and buying Lithuanian products to support Lithuanian factories and promote national products in the market. The second one was encouraging women-home workers to produce items of art, which had demand in the market at that time14. Yet, the LWC did not raise any demands to the government, understanding the complicated situation of the state.
- 15 Grumbinaite, T., Moteru pastangos teisiu lygybe igyvendinti [Women‘s efforts to realize the equali (...)
20The tension in social interrelations reached its culmination in 1935, when the municipality of Kaunas city passed a decree to dismiss women doctors from the district hospital, claiming that the reason for the dismissal was not their competence but the positions held by their husbands. In response to that, the Union of Lithuanian Women with Higher Education (ULWHE) addressed the Minister of the Home Affairs S. Rusteika, pleading not to sign the decree of Kaunas municipality. The Minister did not consider the women’s plea. Conceiving that it was impossible to stop the process of making women redundant, the ULWHE turned to the Federation of International Diplomaed Women. In September 1935, the Federation presented the General Secretariat of the Union of the Nations with a memorandum which was introduced at the 16th plenum of the Union of the Nations. The memorandum stated that Lithuanian women had been incapacitated to practice their profession, the government did not take into consideration women’s talents, education and preparation and made them return to the household activities. The memorandum stressed that such an act « was not a step towards civilization, but a return to the primeval conditions »15. The Union of the Nations discussed the issue of women’s redundancy but no resolution was passed.
- 16 Meeting of women with higher education, Moteris ir pasaulis [Woman and World], 1938, No. 4(14), p. (...)
21Restricted possibilities in the labour market encouraged women to seek education. Vytautas Magnus University, the only university in Lithuania at that time, was very popular among them. In 1932 there were 3169 male students and 1184 female students of which 171 and 53 respectively graduated University, and in 1937 male students amounted to 2103 and women – 901 of which 234 and 59 respectively graduated University16. A larger proportion between studying and graduating women implies that men had a higher job possibility than women in the labour market. Besides, a considerably large circle of educated women scarcely participated in the labour market at the end of the 1930s, which was due to the employment laws.
22At the beginning of January 1939, the LWC reacted with a memorandum to the government’s decree which said that, from March, one of the spouses had to be dismissed if his/her salary was 600 Litas in Kaunas and 450 Litas in the periphery. The decree was directed at women, because the law required to dismiss the spouse whose salary was lower. The LWC’s memorandum pointed out the breaches of women’s rights, which were established by the Constitution. Moreover, they demanded to regulate the employment norms of those who had several jobs and allow educated women to participate in the preparation of labour and social security laws. They argued that dismissal of married women, who were qualified specialists, would worsen the life of the family and the state. The press also criticized the government’s policy :
- 17 Memorandum of women‘s organizations, Moteris ir pasaulis [Woman and World], 1939, No. 1, p. 5.
It is those small nations that will secure their independence which all citizens, i.e. not only men but also women, are self-dependent. […] Lithuania will depreciate half of its citizens and hold them in such conditions which will reduce their value […] such nations will not be able to withstand against large ones and may lose their independence in the long run.17
23Women’s expulsion from the labour market at the end of the 1930s was related to a complicated economic situation in Lithuania. At that time urbanization of the country was inconsiderable and agriculture, which did not require many qualified workers, was prevailing. Even in this sector women’s workplaces were occupied by men because schools of agriculture provided girls with training just for housework. In 1940 the government did not pass any regulations concerning labour law. On June 15, 1940 Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union. The independence of the state was re-established on March 11, 1990.
Reflections on the impact of labour laws of the 1st Republic on the peripeteias of employment relations in the 2nd Republic of Lithuania
24After the reestablishment of the state and moving from planned to market economy, the interrelations between the sexes in the labour market were also changing. During the soviet period from 1945 to 1990 all people in Lithuania had to work, and employment relations were regulated by the state. The transition to market economy raised a sex problem in employment. The society was trying to preserve traditional patriarchal relations where a man’s, a father’s role was more important than the one of a woman. Hence, when the state’s economy was in crisis from 1990 to 1996, women were the first to be dismissed. This fact has a clear link to the way of solving problems in the labour market from 1926 to 1940. Another link is women’s evasion to universities with the aim to become highly qualified employees. The difference between the facts in the 1st and the 2nd Republics is that women with higher education in the 1930s could not find a job and usually looked for a rich(er) husband. Today, educated women take an active part in Lithuanian and European labour markets.
- 18 Kanopiene, Vida, Moterys darbo rinkoje : padetis ir problemos [Women in the labour market : situat (...)
- 19 Socialiniai pokyciai : Lietuva 1990/1998 [Social changes : Lithuania in 1990-1998], Vilnius, Garne (...)
25Sociological researches carried out during the second Republic indicate that men are not willing to pass the leading positions to women18. According to the head of Statistical Information of Lithuanian Labour Exchange, R. Babianskiene, although women’s education is much higher than men’s in the country, much more women agree to take lower positions or lower-paid jobs. 80 % women have a job of a lower qualification, and women in the framework of the government comprise 3-6 %. « One of the possible reasons [for that] is that women, traditionally, feel stronger responsibility for children, family, home, thus, they are less picky and agree to take a lower position [than their actual qualification is] »19, ponders Babianskiene. A member of parliament and doctor of social sciences, G. Purvaneckiene, adds that Lithuanian men still live in a patriarchal spirit. Men (including young ones) who have discriminatory attitudes to women comprise the majority in our country. On the other hand, more and more women openly speak that they have a goal to climb career ladder, earn well and not only bring up children, care about the household and be satisfied with jobs which are entrusted to them by men.
26Women in Lithuania comprise 52,8 % of the population, yet their participation in political and social life is passive. Statistics indicate that since the reestablishment of the state independence, the average rate of women in Seimas and municipalities has been 22 %. There are 31 women in Seimas of total 141 members, and just two women ministers. Women’s activeness in political parties is also low. Women comprise 10-20 % of the members listed in the first tenth of the parties’ lists. This distribution of the sexes in political life of the country makes impact on its economic development and social interrelations. Since 2008 women are legally granted the right to raise a child up to two years. The passed law was intended to promote family interests, yet it may make a negative impact on women’s careers in the future. They will lose qualifications, which will undermine their possibilities to compete for a better paid job. Most women in Lithuania work in the public or social service sector but not in private business. Scarce application of flexi-time in Lithuanian organizations makes damage not only to the economic future of a young family but also to the state. At present, qualified workforce in Lithuania is highly needed.
27Unemployment is still an economic problem in Lithuania. According to the data of the Lithuanian Labour Exchange as of 1 January 2005, women’s unemployment was 50,9 % and as of 1 January 2006 – 60 %. The data do not reflect the exact situation in the labour market, since some people do not register in the Labour Exchange, yet, the tendency remains.
28There are other gender-related problems in the employment relations in Lithuania. For example, some differences in the types of jobs of men and women can be noticed. Women and men remain segregated by the occupations which are considered either male or female. The job segregation by gender negatively affects individuals who take a job which is « appropriate » to their sex. For example, men who work as baby-sitters or nurses (the Lithuanian language does not have a word for a male nurse) often face a sceptic reaction of their clients, colleagues and managers who doubt their masculinity. Women who transgress the limits of their gender face suspicion and hostility at workplace more often than men.
29The payment for the same work to men and women is not equal. It can be stated that social recession during the reforms affected women first of all. In 2007 women’s average salary was 30 % lower than that of men. This fact confirms the findings of research in the West which show that the higher percentage of women do a certain job, the lower the average salary of that job.
30In a sense, it was a natural reaction to the negative consequences of women’s professional activity, when the problems of economic recession in the mid of the 1990s were solved by « double » employment, i.e. holding two (or sometimes more) jobs. In 2004, when Lithuania joined the European Union this tendency disappeared and today women actively compete with men in the labour market. Today they comprise 50 % of all employed. The Law of Equal Opportunities, which was passed in 1998, and the EU laws have contributed to the increase of this number. Women actively defend their rights to work. Those who cannot realize themselves in Lithuania emigrate and start their own business and actively join the workforce in foreign states.
31Hence, the difference of women of the 2nd Republic from the ones of the 1st Republic is that they are capable to adapt to shifting economic, cultural and employment conditions. The number of women studying at undergraduate and postgraduate level at universities is larger than that of men. This increases their possibilities to compete in the labour market. At present the most topical problem is the difference of salary of the sexes. Men in Lithuania still earn more than women. Women-parliamentarians and women’s non-governmental organizations are preparing bills, which will encourage women to strive for high-paid positions.
32The problem of employment in Lithuanian labour market emerged in the 1920s. In the 1930s the women’s issue in the labour market became even more acute. The primary reason for that was the global economic crisis. The government tried to solve the issue of rising unemployment by passing a law that required to dismiss a person whose spouse was earning more. Consequently, women were victimized by this law. After the takeover of the state in 1926, women were made to return to the family through social pressure. Patriarchal relations were prevailing in Lithuania, which created a background to make women redundant disregarding their qualification and education. As women were not able to participate in the labour market under equal conditions, they turned to studying. The number of women students at Vytautas Magnus University was much higher than the one of men already in the 1930s. Women’s involvement in University studies made the situation in the labour market milder.
33After the reestablishment of the state in 1990, employment issues in general became very acute due to the transition from the planned to market economy. At the beginning of the 1990s the rate of women’s unemployment was higher than that of men. In 1993 the government granted women with 3 years of maternity leave, and the employers appealed to motherhood as an argument when pushing women out from the labour market. From the middle of the 1990s new problems such as workload of « double » employment, a different payment for the same work of male and female employees occurred in the labour market. Besides, patriarchal relations in the society were still strong and made social pressure on women’s self-awareness when making a choice between family and career. These factors have undermined women’s possibilities to compete on equal terms with men and be considered as partners. Therefore, women more often took lower-paid jobs and usually were employed in social service sector. These problems and the ways of solving them stem from the 1st Republic of Lithuania.
34At the end of the 1990s and through the 21st century women became more active when fighting for their rights in the labour market. Some of the means of fight during this period have remained more or less the same as in the 1st Republic, e.g. negotiation of women’s organizations with the government and establishment of women’s non-governmental organizations to deal with specific issues. Yet, some new forms of women’s activity for their rights have emerged. For example, women establish and manage small businesses, compete with men in the professions and positions traditionally considered as male, their organizations take part in preparing and realizing various projects supported by the state and the European Union. Hence, women have a possibility to realize themselves in the labour market, both in the home country and abroad. Today women are much more active and determined when solving labour issues. The passed laws such as Equal Opportunity Act (1998) and the signed anti-discriminatory conventions of the international and intra-national institutions legally defend the rights of both sexes in employment relations. Yet, the problem of embedding conventions and laws into real working life still remains.
1 Baranauskaite, Toma, Moteru padetis Lietuvos darbo rinkoje [Women’s position in Lithuanian labour market, Moteris postmodernioje visuomeneje [Woman in Postmodern Society], Conference proceedings, Kaunas, Technologija, 2006, p. 21.
2 Prunskiene, Kazimiera, Moters vaidmuo ir galimybes visuomeneje [Woman‘s role and opportunities in the society], Moters pasaulis [Woman‘s world], 1997, p. 3.
3 Martinkus, Bronislovas, Berzinskiene, Daiva, Lietuvos gyventojų užimtumo ekonominiai aspektai [Economic Aspects of the Population‘s Employment in Lithuania], Kaunas, Technologija, 2005, p. 172.
4 Stenographs of the 2nd Seimas, Sitting, 104 and 206, June 3, 1924 and November 10, 1925.
6 Ibid., Sitting 77, March 18, 1924.
7 Stenographs of the 3rd Seimas, Sitting 44, November 19, 1926.
9 LWC memorandum, CASL, f. 923, f. 787, p. 39.
10 Moterų nedarbas Lietuvoje [Women‘s unemployment in Lithuania]. MDLAS, f. 181–15, p. 6.
11 Vyriausybes nutarimas [Government‘s decree], MDLAS, f. 181–15, p. 4.
12 Moteru nedarbas Lietuvoje [Women‘s unemployment in Lithuania], MDLAS, f. 181–15, p. 6.
13 Ibid., p. 6.
14 Ibid., p. 6.
15 Grumbinaite, T., Moteru pastangos teisiu lygybe igyvendinti [Women‘s efforts to realize the equality of rights], Naujoji vaidilutė [New Virgin], 1936, No. 12, p. 469.
16 Meeting of women with higher education, Moteris ir pasaulis [Woman and World], 1938, No. 4(14), p. 14.
17 Memorandum of women‘s organizations, Moteris ir pasaulis [Woman and World], 1939, No. 1, p. 5.
18 Kanopiene, Vida, Moterys darbo rinkoje : padetis ir problemos [Women in the labour market : situation and problems], Lietuvos šeima [Lithuanian family], Vilnius, 1995, p. 3.
19 Socialiniai pokyciai : Lietuva 1990/1998 [Social changes : Lithuania in 1990-1998], Vilnius, Garnelis, 2000, p. 202.Haut de page
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Virginija Jureniene, « Women's Position in Lithuanian Labour Market in the 20th century », Amnis [En ligne], 8 | 2008, mis en ligne le 01 septembre 2008, consulté le 23 février 2017. URL : http://amnis.revues.org/529 ; DOI : 10.4000/amnis.529Haut de page
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